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  1. Накуренный бот

    Concentrating in the Garden

    The cannabis world is experiencing an incredible evolution. More favorable common-sense laws allow businesses across the country to join in on the green rush, providing a safer environment to produce cannabis and a legal framework to purchase and consume it. A greater amount of cannabis is being produced today than ever before in a more professional environment with experienced and knowledgeable cultivators. Nowhere is this more evident than in the world of concentrates, where passion meets science, cultivation and ingenuity. The quest to extract the best-quality concentrates has had a marked influence on the cultivation of cannabis, changing how some approach growing. The results are a greater understanding of cannabis cultivation and a wave of cleaner, more enjoyable concentrates entering the market for consumers to enjoy. Before considering the environment and the growing techniques involved in producing top-shelf concentrates, it’s important to understand how genetics play a role in extractions and how they can influence both yield and quality. Intimate knowledge of and experience with a specific strain or a strain’s particular phenotype can aid in choosing the right genetics for the production of concentrates. Multiple Cannabis Cup winner Ozi, a.k.a. the Cuban Grower, explains, “I like to use old-school, frosty strains like Cookies and Cream which will dump loads of kief and trichomes.” He prefers using sativa and sativa-dominant hybrids to make water hash and kief as “they seem to be more stable and stay sandy as opposed to greasing up too much.” Ozi adds: “The landrace, sativa-dominant strains seem to have more stability, especially at higher temps, making extraction easier.” Perhaps this is inherent in equatorial strains, as they are accustomed to higher environmental temperatures and produce terpenes that are more stable. Conversely, more indica-dominant strains like OGs, Kushes and Purples are accustomed to cooler temperatures and tend to be volatile at higher temps, greasing up and becoming harder to extract via non-solvent methods that produce kief and water hash. Some terpenes begin to volatize at temperatures as low as 74°F, while others are stable up until nearly 400°F-plus. Cannabis Cup winner Nikka T of Essential Extracts California prefers the approach of choosing strains that exhibit a high oil-to-wax (fats and lipids) ratio. While he loves Cookies and Cream for its large yields, he “prefers strains like Forbidden Fruit, which returns a smaller yield but tends to have more terpenes and a larger nose.” Nikka adds: “Cookies and Cream doesn’t have the huge terpene profile. The best of both worlds would be OGs and Kushes, which have a decent yield but also the greasy, heavy terpene count.” The key here is that different strains will result in variations in quality and yield. Some strains lend themselves to kief while others provide a higher quality when extracted with cold water or via solvent extraction. Sly Vegas/ НT Setting the Environment Cultivation specifically for Cup-worthy concentrates means setting an environment that yields greater terpene and oil content. This can often conflict with an established garden objective, as big fat colas accompanying huge yields don’t necessarily mean a better percentage of high-quality concentrates. Intense lights that help produce massive flowers should either be replaced with lower-wattage ballasts or be placed farther away from the garden’s canopy. Lowering the temperature of the growroom to as low as 68°F can reduce flower yields but help retain precious terpenes that add to the flavor and quality of the end product. Remember when walking into a garden that those terpenes that fill the air are degassing off the plants, resulting in less essential oils and flavor in your flower and therefore in your concentrate. The Cuban Grower advises, “I use an infrared gun to monitor my canopy tops and try to remain below 75°F to avoid cooking the tops.” Proper pruning and the use of trellising, stakes, and stem-bending or -twisting methods can help ensure that flower sites receive as much exposure to light as possible. This gives the plant enough energy to produce as much oil in the buds below the canopy as well as those on the top. And, as НT senior cultivation editor Danny Danko teaches, “The more the root, the more the fruit.” Plants that have larger root-balls can divert more energy to the flower and into oil production. Providing an environment rich in CO2 gives the plant more fuel to produce a greater number of better-developed trichomes, and it’s a fairly easy means to boost concentrate performance. Some growers refer to themselves fondly as “terp farmers.” Sly Vegas/ НT You Are What You Eat One of the unforeseen consequences in the explosion of the popularity and the production of concentrates has been the way that it has illuminated some of the poorer practices in the cannabis community. What was once undetectable or present in very low numbers in flowers has now been concentrated and revealed in unacceptable amounts in extracts. While a flower may have 20 percent THCA, once concentrated it can reach 85 percent and higher. Any pesticides, heavy metals and contaminants can also increase in similar fashion, highlighting the need to grow without the use of chemicals, pesticides and other additives. Nikka T warns against “using feeds heavy in salts or synthetic sugars as they are harder to flush out, which creates a larger wax-to-oil ratio, resulting in inferior concentrates.” When growing specifically for concentrates, foliar feeds should never be used, especially in the flowering period, as any substance that gets on the flower material will wind up concentrated in your final material. Flushing at the end of a grow becomes paramount to the quality of your concentrate. Any salts, nutrients or non-cannabis elements will contaminate the flavor and smoothness of the smoke. Avoid foliar sprays as much as possible, as these can easily find their way into your finished product. Although it might be unnoticeable when smoking the flower, a discerning palate can detect a contaminant in its concentrated form. Harsh, bitter or unenjoyable flavors in your dab can often be attributed to neem oil or too many sugars or nutrients. In the modern concentrate market, there’s an overall emphasis on keeping the concentrate as pure to the plant’s genetic expression as possible. Plants shouldn’t be fed or encouraged to grow to a freakish point. Steroid-fueled hulking nugs fed to the brink with PGRs (plant-growth regulators) will not produce smooth, favorably flavored top-shelf material. The flavor shouldn’t represent the terroir of the environment like old-school hash from overseas, containing impurities from the mountains from which the plants came. Distinct water and nutrient combinations as well as less-than-favorable extraction locations and methods lend their own uniqueness. Pounding stalks of cannabis against concrete walls and collecting kief from the dusty floor to press into hashish imparts flavors that are impure and complex. Modern extraction knowledge and improved palates have elevated the art of concentrates. The modest use of some beneficial teas, finishers and bloomers can be used to increase terpene production, as long as they can be fully flushed away. The Cuban Grower prefers to use a feed finisher that makes the plant think it has a bacterial infection with the idea that this helps increase resin and terpenoid production midway through flowering. When it comes to feeding, last-minute sugars, blackstrap molasses and many other finishers add too many sugars and nutrients that become difficult to fully remove from the plant and don’t have enough time to be converted into useful energy. Sly Vegas/ НT The Fruits of Your Labor Providing the best path to the greatest concentrates doesn’t quite end in the growroom and can be often overlooked. Drying and curing your flowers destroys terpenes and changes the overall freshness of the flavor. Older material and dried-out trim can result in an undesirable hay-like, earthy flavor, diminishing the boldness and burst of flavor. Putting your fresh-cut material into a cold environment and even freezing it to preserve those precious terpenes is the most popular way to run water hash. Solvent extractions usually use drier material, often resulting in loss of flavor and oil. Cold curing is slowly becoming more popular, cutting out that tinny flavor that often accompanies concentrates made from wet material. Lowering temperatures to the high 50s or low 60s and providing a small amount of airflow can help achieve a good ratio of dryness to terpene retention. Intimate knowledge and experience with a specific strain, even a particular phenotype, can be a fundamental key in the craft of extraction. Providing cool and clean grow spaces that follow proper standards and practices gives the plant the greatest probability of producing the best extracts possible. Giving the plant enough sustenance to thrive without pushing it, ensuring that it only receives beneficial nutrients and water and avoiding any foliar contact to prevent foreign contamination, provides the best material to process into concentrates. The remarkable advancements of cannabis concentrates are primarily due to the growing practices of our cultivators. While we continually strive for the best-grown and cleanest cannabis possible, the truth is that, on the whole, cannabis has never been as clean as it is now. When the passion of cultivators and the modern techniques of extractors meet, the results can be the most effective and greatest gift that cannabis can provide.
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    The Organic Terroir of Puffin Farm

    Puffin Farm: A Mom-and-Pop Grow Op My trip to Puffin Farm started out very much like many of my visits to Washington State. I landed at Sea-Tac on a cold, drizzly morning and was met at the airport by my nephew-in-law. But this time, instead of heading into Seattle, we drove two-plus hours in the rain to my niece’s pot farm. My niece, Jade Stefano, had invited me to stay with her and her husband, Ben Short, at their farm in Ellensburg to photograph the annual harvest, something I had wanted to do ever since they started the farm in 2014. On this trip, the plan was for me to be completely entrenched at the estate for the duration of the harvest. Additionally, I would make several field trips to Puffin’s processing facilities in Seattle. Jade Stefano holds a package of Remedy, one of Puffin Farm’s most popular medical CBD strains; David Goodman/ НT As we drove farther from the city, we passed through some of the most beautiful countryside I have ever seen, with gorgeous rolling hills, streams and lush foliage. We arrived in the early afternoon at the farm, which is situated right alongside the Yakima River. As we approached, I couldn’t actually see any cannabis; the only thing visible was an eight-foot fence surrounding the entire grow area, which is mandated by state law to block the view of the plants from outside. We parked and I grabbed my camera bag and went right into the growing field, as the harvest was already in progress. The first thing I noticed when entering the Puffin Farm’s grow area was the intense floral fragrance of many different varieties of living, breathing cannabis plants all coming together to make a heady aroma that instantly perked up my senses. I arrived just a day after the harvest began, and the Puffin staff was fully into the swing of it. The farmworkers were set up in pairs, one person holding a plant and the other cutting it at the base with a lopper. Afghani Kush 47 is ready to harvest; David Goodman/ НT Several other workers lined up to fill their wheelbarrows with the freshly cut plants, then wheeled their loads directly to the drying rooms to be weighed, catalogued, and hung upside down; they’d then head right back out to the field for more. Stefano and Short were giving an interview and photo session in the middle of the field with Northwest Leaf, a regional cannabis-industry publication. Over these past few years, the pair have emerged as two of the most sought-after experts in sustainable cannabis farming. They claim it was their destiny. If Puffin Farm looks like a classic mom-and-pop enterprise, you couldn’t find a couple more perfectly suited to this situation than Stefano and Short. Short’s organic-farming expertise started with his studying sustainable agriculture at Evergreen College, while Stefano’s a naturopathic physician with a doctorate from Bastyr University. Together, they practiced their organic-farming techniques growing gourmet mushrooms in California in the early 2000s. I asked Stefano how she got into pot farming. “We’ve always loved cannabis and started growing it as soon as we were able,” she said. “When cannabis was legalized in Washington State, we were already growing it medically. We realized we couldn’t live in Washington and have this historic thing happen and just watch it go by and not be a part of it, so it was either move forward with the new system or just stop doing it and be left behind. So we just decided to go for it.” And since launching in 2014, Puffin Farm has developed a reputation for producing the finest organically grown cannabis utilizing very strict standards of sustainable farming. Short runs the farm and is the head grower, while Stefano is the CEO and heads up operations management and product development. Their simple philosophy is to produce the most organically pure flower possible. Stefano explained: “We want to grow cannabis that we actually want to smoke! We’re super-picky and we want everything to be organic and natural with no chemicals.” “And not just organic,” Short added, “but we grow vegetarian organic, meaning we avoid products derived from factory-farmed animals such as bonemeal, blood meal or fish meal. All these things are commonly used organic fertilizers, but we don’t use them.” Instead, Stefano and Short chose to use organic inputs like biochar, rock dust, bat guano and worm castings. The duo has found that over time this has created what they call a “living soil.” Stefano elaborated: “Our soil is a sandy loam river-bottom soil, so we’re starting out with the best type of soil you can get. And we have supplemented it over the last four years with bio char, truckloads of worm castings, alfalfa and guanos. We make aerated compost tea to increase the biodiversity in the soil and help make nutrients available, so less fertilizer is needed. All these things help create and maintain a healthy microbiome, and a living, biologically active soil is what makes for healthy and happy plants.” Stefano and Short said they started out with 1 percent organic matter three years ago, and now they’re up to almost 5 percent organic matter—and it’s just going to keep growing from there. “We’re building the soil,” Stefano said. “We’re not eroding it the way most conventional farms do. This is important not only for the long-term productivity of the farm, but also to help in the battle against climate change.” Stefano explained: “Increased organic matter in soil serves as a carbon sink, which keeps carbon stable and sequestered in the soil instead of releasing it into the atmosphere as CO2. Organic farms that increase carbon in their soil can get closer to a carbon-negative status and actually offset a good deal of their carbon emissions generated by electricity and fuel use. That’s a really important principle in our farming technique: building soil and nurturing soil and growing soil. By feeding your soil, you are feeding your plants, And that’s what it’s all about.” Puffin farmer Jeremy Haines loading up his wheelbarrow; David Goodman/ НT Out vs. In When the subject of indoor hydroponic growing came up, Stefano expressed a very strong philosophy. “This is really important, and it’s becoming more and more of an issue,” she said. “Marijuana was illegal for many years—since 1937. And due to that, people couldn’t grow cannabis out in the open, so where did they grow it? In the basement, or in a closet, because that’s the only place that they could hide it. To do that, they had to use artificial lights, and they developed some really good techniques to get really strong, flavorful cannabis that looked great and had high yields.” But cannabis is a plant and it loves sunshine, nature and soil, and it thrives outdoors. Stefano told me that when cannabis is grown outside correctly, it produces very high-grade terpenes and cannabinoid-rich flowers. “Now that it’s legal in many states, it doesn’t have to be grown indoors anymore,” she said. “But because of the history, many people learned how to grow indoors and they got very good at it, and they didn’t want to take the risk to go outdoors.” And, according to Stefano, it’s a misconception that outdoor cultivation comes with higher risks and big unknowns. The fears of pests and inclement weather damaging crops have kept many growers cultivating indoors in factory warehouses. And growing in these indoor facilities comes with a great cost. “In Washington, there are 30,000-square-foot factories that are using hundreds of thousands of watts of electricity, and the carbon footprint is obscenely high,” Stefano said. It’s been estimated 1 percent of the country’s grid power is being used to grow cannabis—and the percentage in Washington State is even higher. “Cannabis is a plant that thrives when grown outside in the right environment!” Stefano said. “It produces an amazing array terpenes and flavors and beautiful flowers. It’s happy and healthy, and you don’t need pesticides because nature provides you with a natural protective system.” Natural predators feast on insects, she said, and the wind provides airflow and prevents fungus from attacking the crop. Indoor growers, on the other hand, have to meticulously control the environment to prevent fungal infections from taking hold, and insect populations can explode without natural predators around to devour them. This can often lead to the widespread and sometimes illegal use of chemical pesticides. A row of Dancehall (left), a CBD-rich medical strain, growing right alongside a row of Death Star, a THC-rich recreational strain; David Goodman/ НT Terroir, Terroir, Terroir Stefano and Short also attribute the high quality of their weed to the very first decision they made when they decided to start Puffin Farm: its Yakima River location. “Terroir is a really important concept that people are just starting to consider when it comes to cannabis. It’s what gives wines produced on different estates from the same genetic stock their unique characteristics,” Stefano said. “Terroir is a combination of all the environmental factors that contribute to a crop. It includes things such as elevation, air quality, the UV light that comes to your location, geography, local microclimate, soil characteristics, mineral composition and cultivation practices. “If you’re next to a river or if there are hills by the farm, that will affect the final character of your crop,” Stefano continues. “Terroir affects what flavors are expressed, the concentrations of cannabinoids and, to some extent, the ratios. We have a stellar terroir that includes a dry, hot summer, a good elevation and river frontage. We get a lot of wind, which is a battle sometimes, but it certainly adds something to the phenotypic expression we see in our crop. We have a great terroir here in Ellensburg, and it is definitely helping to create aromatic and tasty flower.” Puffin Purple: Afghani x G-13 x Seattle Purple (75% Indica/ 25% Sativa). Flowering time: 9-10 weeks. 17.1% THC, 0.23% CBD; David Goodman/ НT Organic Equivalency Although most everything Stefano and Short do on the farm is “organic,” Washington State has no official organic designation for cannabis. As a matter of fact, farms are not actually allowed to call their weed organic regardless of farming practices. “Washington State has explicitly created rules that say you cannot call your cannabis organic,” said Stefano. Nevertheless, she adds, “We grow to organic standards using organically certified amendments. We’ve chosen the Clean Green Certified [Program], which is the largest cannabis organic-equivalent certifier in the country, to vet our farm’s practices. They inspect our farm and look at all the amendments. They take samples for pesticide testing, and make sure there are no synthetic chemicals being used. We believe in the importance of third-party certification because on the market you’ll see many products claiming to be pesticide-free and organic, but there’s nobody verifying that.” During the harvest season, the greenhouses are converted into huge drying rooms; David Goodman/ НT The Post-Harvest Cure As rigid as Stefano and Short’s approach is to pure organic farming, so is their methodology in post-processing. “Growing terpene-rich, cannabinoid-rich plants is one thing—and that takes a lot of effort and the use of the right ingredients—but there’s all kinds of ways that stuff can go wrong after harvest, so we take post-harvest care and processing very seriously,” Stefano said. At Puffin Farm, the plants are harvested at their peak, and are quickly brought into climate-controlled rooms in which they’re hung upside down with most of their fan leaves and stalks intact. The leaves protect the fragile trichomes from damage as the plants are slowly dried for 14-18 days at a temperature of 70°F or less. After drying, the curing process begins, which can take anywhere from one to six months, depending on the strain. “Some strains reach their peak after six months or more of proper curing,” Stefano said. “We have cannabis from last year. It’s over a year old and it still smells and tastes amazing, and in fact is better than it was a month after harvest. Its flavor becomes smoother and more mature the way a fine wine would. So curing and storage are really important, and temperature and humidity must be carefully controlled.” The cannabis is stored throughout the year in climate-controlled rooms, between 50° and 60°F. With time, flavors improve, the product becomes smoother and terpenes are maintained. “It’s like wine in that it will degrade with excess heat and light,” Stefano said. “It needs to be handled with care and conscientiousness.” Hindu Kush: Clone-only landrace indica. Flowering time: 8-9 weeks, 21% THC, 0.13% CBD, 3.1% terpene total; David Goodman/ НT In Terpenes We Trust Puffin Farm has developed a reputation for producing recreational varieties treasured for their rich and intoxicating aromas and flavors. “We grow the highest quality with the most flavor,” Short stated. “We’re not necessarily driven by the highest THC content or the biggest yield or the commercially easy strains. It’s more about the terpenes. ‘In Terpenes We Trust’ is our motto.” He’s not kidding. Puffin Farm recently took 11 top awards at Terpestival, a terpene festival and competition. But in addition to Tangerine, Lemon OG and Puffin’s coveted Hindu Kush—among many other recreational strains—the farm has also made a lot of headway in coming up with several very effective medicinal CBD varieties. Stefano explained: “We had been on a strain hunt for CBD, which we had been learning a lot about, and realized there was a real need for CBD cannabis in the market. So we started growing seeds out from a bunch of different CBD-rich cultivars and testing the flower and searching for strong CBD phenotypes. In that process, we came across three or four amazing ones that we have kept growing and they’re truly wonderful!” And the medicinal efficacy of Puffin Farm’s cannabis is self-evident. “There’s a patient in Washington State who has intractable seizures and who was having multiple seizures a day that were not being controlled with pharmaceutical drugs,” Stefano explained. “The patient found one of the cultivars that we grow, the Remedy, in our clients’ retail stores in Seattle. It is one of only two strains that completely stopped the seizures. “I hear stories like this about our CBD strains and I’m humbled,” Stefano continued. “I get emails all the time from patients about another strain we grow called Dancehall. It’s a 20:1 CBD to THC as well. These people may have anxiety and pain and are suffering terribly, and they find this strain and it changes their lives and makes them functional again. Stories like this about our CBD products just blow my mind.” The conversation lightened up as Stefano hit the kitchen to whip up a huge salad and a big pot of pasta with home-made marinara sauce, her own version of her family’s traditional recipe. She often prepares an impromptu lunch for everyone on the farm. As she cooked, she mused: “You know, it’s gratifying to know that our customers appreciate quality as much as we do. It’s funny… We’ve run some numbers and so far we’ve gotten over a million people high—and counting.” Article excerpted from the forthcoming book A Year in the Life of Puffin Farm, by David Goodman.
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    Frequently Asked Questions About Cloning Cannabis

    Healthy rooted cuttings provide many benefits, including the ability to grow the same strain repeatedly and the ease of maintaining a level canopy. Raise your cloning confidence by learning the tips and tricks that increase propagation rates. When is the right time to take a clone? The right time to take a clone is when the plant is at least five weeks old from seeding and is growing multiple side branches and shoots. You will know by handling the plant shoots if they’re older woody branches or soft tissue. Either of these can be cloned as long as you know what you are doing. The worst thing you can do is take a fresh shoot with inner walls that are still hollow—this usually ends up with the cutting wilting and becoming a soggy mess within minutes. Roots protrude from a rockwool cube that’s ready to plant into a medium; Danny Danko/ НT Do I need to use rooting hormone? No, you do not need to use rooting hormone, as the plants naturally create growth hormones that encourage them to produce root cells and cease the growth of stem cells and leaves. You can always give your clone a supplemental hormone, which is often IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), the most naturally occurring plant hormone of the auxin variety. Some seaweed extracts also contain natural growth hormones that stimulate root-cell development. What is the best medium in which to root my clones? You can buy a range of different rooting cubes and jiffy plugs these days. The smaller cube-size versions allow roots to become air-pruned as they grow out of the medium and begin their expansion. Using coco or peat-moss jiffy plugs, Root Riot foam cubes or rockwool cubes will allow you to root successfully while maintaining the proper moisture level. My personal favorite for rooting clones are 2-inch-square coco jiffy cubes. Clear domes increase humidity and rooting rates; Danny Danko/ НT What temperature is best for my clones? The temperature and humidity of your cloning area needs to be warm and wet. This is the main reason why growers experience stunted clones or rooting that can take anywhere from 21 to 35 days. If your growroom temperature is below 68°F, your clones will avoid rooting. Maintain a humidity level of 70% and a temperature of 75°F. Why is there is fuzzy mold growing inside the propagator? If you’ve left your humidity dome for several days untouched, you may notice that stagnant air and wet conditions have caused your clones to grow a furry white fungus. When you touch the plant material, it will feel soggy or mushy. This is a major setback, especially if you are depending on growing out a certain number of plants. To remediate this, remove the lid, immediately dispose of the infected clones and introduce fresh air into the propagator. You should lift the lid for 30 seconds daily to encourage the exchange of fresh air, taking care to maintain proper temperature and humidity. Cutting a quarter-size hole into the clear plastic at either end of the lid can help circulate air as well. How big does my propagator need to be? From my experience, the bigger the propagator, the better it is for the clones. You can easily root cones in cups and cover them with cling-wrap film and an elastic band if you must; however, using a propagator that is 12 inches tall provides plenty of room to take larger, more mature clones. Avoid using a small propagator that is 6 inches tall or less, as you’ll only end up with cramped clones touching the wet sides and roof of the plastic dome. Why does my clone have white bumps around its base? This is the process whereby a cutting produces root cells. These first nubs are the earliest indicators that your clone is developing roots. At this stage, the clone is becoming an established, independent plant, so don’t disturb these delicate primordia. After it forms a fully developed root system with fibrous root hairs, the clone will independently photosynthesize and begin taking in nutrients and growing. When will my clones start showing roots? This is determined by a number of variables including temperature, humidity, lighting and the overall quality of the plant. As long as your cloning room is at a humidity level of 70% and the room temperature is 75°F, you should see the first roots emerging within 7-10 days. If you are using larger clones, they will root first due to their size and maturity. Ensure there’s at least two or three sets of leaves on your clones; Dru West/ НT Does it matter which part of the mother plant a clone is taken from? Many growers swear that clones taken from the base of a plant will root first, perhaps because they were closest to the mother plant’s roots. Other growers testify that cloning from the top using the mother plant’s newest growth will produce the fastest-rooting clones. Cloning cannabis is a game of patience, and trying to rush the process will only frustrate you further. As long as the cuttings you take have at least one internode and some leaves, you’ll have success. Rockwool cubes sit on top of large perlite chunks; Dru West/ НT Why are my rooted clones starting to wilt after taking them out of the humidity dome? This is called the hardening-off process. Your clones have been acclimated to warm and wet conditions and now need to get used to life outside of the humidity dome. It will not take long for them to adjust, just like a fish that’s been transferred into a tank of fresh water. If your clones are wilting and look like they’re about to die, improper temperature or humidity is to blame. You must remember that you’re mimicking the spring season. Slowly introduce them into their new environment that contains intense lighting and wind from fans. Can I transplant the rooted clones to any grow medium now? Once your clones are hardened off and you are happy with the way they are coming along, you should prepare the grow medium into which they’ll establish themselves and grow. The roots of the clone will want to dig down as far as they can to anchor themselves firmly into the medium. Feed them very lightly at this stage and encourage more dry periods to avoid having a waterlogged medium. Roots will push out aggressively when they’re looking for moisture and available nutrients. Clones can be aeroponically rooted in no medium at all; Dru West Is there any other way to root clones? If you find that the conventional technique isn’t working, you can look at other cloning methods, such as using a bubbler or air layering. Using a bubbler entails sitting freshly cut clones in a bubbling oxygenated nutrient solution with a water temperature of 75°F. Air layering is used in bonsai-tree production and can result in some large and sturdy foot-long clones when done correctly. It’s something I personally do when I want to take a large side branch and grow it as an independent clone. The amazing thing is that it’s actually performed on the plant as it’s growing normally. I strongly recommend you research this technique before attempting it, especially if you are new to plant biology. Cutting leaf blades focuses your cutting’s energy on rooting; Danny Danko/ НT Do I really need to cut the leaf blades down? You do not need to remove any of the leaf blades, but it does encourage the plant to cease photosynthesis and almost shut down. This is how root cells are able to form in the dark, wet conditions of the rooting cube. Many growers simply cut a healthy clone and then, once it has rooted, allow it to grow with all its leaves intact. It’s been 14 days and still no roots. Am I doing something wrong? Most likely you’ve messed up one of the basics and now your pristine clones are back to square one. If you remove the clone and look at it closely, you may see that there’s no root development. In fact, there might be just a soggy decaying tip where a healthy wooden stem once sat. If this is the case, then learn from your mistake and apply root hormone, change to a fresh new medium and make sure your temperature and humidity are at the proper levels. Maintaining healthy mother-plants guarantees thousands of exact replicas; Danny Danko/ НT How many clones can I take off a mother plant before it’s excessive? It may be called the mother plant, but this does not mean you can butcher it. You should nurture the mother plant and raise it to produce as many healthy clones while also pruning it to fit in your space. You shouldn’t take too many clones at once, as you will eventually be left with a large woody stem with few shoots remaining. You also should consider using a new mother plant after multiple generations of cloning have taken place. Dipping cut ends in rooting hormone protects delicate plant tissue while encouraging root production; Danny Danko/ НT What are the top tips for cloning? One of my personal favorite techniques is to double dip. This involves taking a clone and wetting the bottom inch with water, then dipping the wet part of the cutting in rooting-hormone powder. Once the powder has fully stuck to the wet part, you can now dip it into a rooting gel to seal that rooting powder in and provide a double dose of natural growth hormone. Good luck getting 100% success rates on your clones and becoming the farmer you’ve always wanted to be!
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    Inside Aurora Cannabis: The World’s Biggest Grow

    Welcome to Aurora Cannabis, a Canadian company that’s redefining what constitutes an efficient, high-capacity cannabis-production facility. Take a tour of its massive cultivation locations, including a gargantuan 800,000-square-foot greenhouse, and learn how this licensed producer continues to expand internationally. Danny Danko/ НT Northern Lights Founded in 2013 and headquartered in Edmonton at the foot of the Canadian Rockies, Aurora Cannabis Inc. looks well-poised to take a sizable chunk of the multibillion-dollar legal cannabis industry both in Canada and worldwide. Spearheaded by CEO Terry Booth, the company is publicly listed (TSX: ACB) (OTCQX: ACBFF) and now has several hundred employees—an intriguing combination of business-savvy suits and cannabis-obsessed cultivators and processors. Aurora is federally licensed through the Canadian Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulation program to grow and sell cannabis and now has four state-of-the-art facilities throughout the country. What’s interesting is that its operations are new, purpose-built constructions—specifically designed and built for cannabis growing rather than repurposed existing warehouses or retrofit buildings. The layouts are designed for maximum efficiency, and their closed-loop HVAC systems allow them to produce clean and safe medical cannabis free of pesticides, molds or any microbial infections. Aurora also has a policy of not utilizing cold pasteurization via cobalt-60 irradiation. Although some other licensed producers may use this radioactive process to sterilize their products, the team at Aurora prefers to preserve its terpenes from heat and its flowers from radioactivity in order to retain all of the medical potential of the crops. Although Aurora tests all its products in an on-site laboratory, Booth tells me, “We also have samples of all our cannabis sent to a Health Canada–qualified independent third-party laboratory for testing and analysis as well.” It’s important to ensure the cleanest possible product, and the team at Aurora remains devoted to maintaining the quality and integrity of its output. Danny Danko/ НT Lit Products Aurora provide several dozen strains of flowers with high THC and CBD levels, as well as buds with a variety of THC-to-CBD ratios in five- and 10-gram increments, with all products shipped using earth-friendly cornstarch packing peanuts. The company also sells supercritical CO2-extracted THC and CBD drops made by blending whole-plant extract with MCT (medium-chain triglyceride) oil to attain a targeted potency. Booth explains: “MCT is a healthy, colorless, odorless oil that is found naturally in coconut oil. MCT oil is broken down easily and efficiently by the body, which means that the client receives the maximum effect of our THC and CBD drops in a relatively short time frame.” A unique product offered by Aurora, its Double-Milled Decarb capsules, is a smoke-free way to receive activated cannabinoids for patients who choose not to smoke or vaporize their flowers or oils. Flowers are decarboxylated to fully activate cannabinoids and then powdered to produce a capsule that can be eaten directly or added to food or drinks. You can buy them filled or purchase your own filler and capsules to make your own at home. All of Aurora’s cannabis and cannabis-derived products are available at a flat-rate compassionate pricing of just $6 per gram for patients in financial situations that qualify for the government-subsidized program established in 2013. Also available is a variety of vaporizers, including desktop versions and discreet vape pens. Aurora’s mobile app takes convenience a step further, allowing patients to view products in real time and order their cannabis medicines with a click of a button on their smartphones using fingerprint authorization. It’ll even send push notifications the instant that favored products are made available! Deliveries take between one and three business days depending on location, and the company is planning same-day delivery in the near future. Danny Danko/ НT Mountain High Our first stop was in Alberta to visit and tour Aurora’s 55,200-square-foot facility known as Aurora Mountain, nestled in beautiful Mountain View County near Calgary. Here, over 100 employees produce and process an astounding amount of cannabis in many different forms—over 10,000 kilograms per year! As I’m gearing up in head-to-toe protective garb to maintain sterility, chief cultivator John Barnet explains to me the protocol and process. Plants are grown in pro-mix and drip-fed with a solution of nutrients mixed into fresh Canadian mountain water once per hour for 10 hours during the daytime light cycle. No pesticides of any kind are ever utilized, resulting in an integrated-pest-management system that relies heavily on beneficial insects. These carnivorous predators and nematodes attack any vegetarian bugs and their eggs in order to keep plants clean, healthy and thriving. Aurora also avoids problems with powdery mildew using preventative measures that include meticulous quality control and employing strains with natural resistance to humidity-related issues. Barnet’s background in osteopathy inspires him to “treat the plants like people,” and he’s passionate about providing the right environment for them at all times. I quickly see that he and his crew cater to each strain’s specific requirements, even with thousands of plants to maintain. The propagation area housing mother plants and clones is lit with LEP (light-emitting plasma) and MH (metal halide) lighting. The advantages of being located in the pro-business province of Alberta include low tax rates and low electrical costs. Tissue-culture techniques are employed as well for efficiency and decontamination along with traditional cloning practices. The 10 flowering rooms range in size from several hundred to several thousand plants. Each is maintained in ultra-sanitary conditions requiring clean trays, benches and floors. The individual enclosed rooms contain their own recycled air, with no fresh air brought in from outside. Plants are harvested, trimmed, dried, packaged and shipped directly to patients. Climate-controlled vaults for storage contain packaging designed to protect the product from light, heat and humidity. Justin Cannabis/ НT Sky’s the Limit Our next stop was at an enterprise the likes of which I’ve never seen in all my years of visiting grow facilities. Located near the international airport at Edmonton, the Dutch-designed hybrid greenhouse known as Aurora Sky, still in the process of being built, boasts a mind-blowing 800,000 square feet! It took a helicopter ride over the site for me to truly determine the enormity of this $100,000,000 endeavor. Conservatively projected to grow over 100,000 kilograms of cannabis per year, the facility employs high-tech European greenhouse agriculture technology for speed and automation. It includes a massive propagation bay, three vegetative bays that are 17,000 square feet each and 16 flowering bays that are each 35,000 square feet. With an 8,000-plant mother room and 40,000 plants per bay, the numbers are simply mind-boggling. Add to that two massive storage vaults, multiple drying and packing rooms, space for a tissue-culture project, a hot-water storage tank and a 50-foot-deep, 102-million-gallon pond the size of 17 Olympic pools, and you begin to understand the magnitude of this endeavor. Aurora’s commitment to cost-effectiveness drove the design of the greenhouse to utilize self-cleaning antireflective glass with snowmelt technology for optimal natural-light intake. The huge hot-water tank, warmed by hyper-efficient European boilers, pumps radiant heat through tubes, and an advanced HVAC design using forced air provides uniform climate control. A separate condensation system prevents humidity-related issues such as powdery mildew. Justin Cannabis/ НT The bays are laid out with one lamp per every 25-26 square feet of footprint to act as supplemental lighting and help produce an even canopy over NFT (nutrient film technique) benching with one plant per square foot secured in rockwool medium. There’s a 1-to-4 ratio of HPS (high-pressure sodium) to LED lights. The LEDs are sealed water-cooled units from the Dutch manufacturer Oreon, providing 53 percent more efficiency than HPS and an eight-year lifespan. Total power usage is 28 megawatts, and the facility can be seen from space! Automation is key to Aurora’s good manufacturing practices, as founding cultivator Chris Mayerson explains to me: “For both quality and cost-effectiveness, we seek to have as little human contact with our plants as possible to avoid contamination. Automated bench washers clean the growing areas and cranes lift up beds to move them as necessary. Robots space out our plants, and an automatic visioning system seeks out and identifies pests and diseases. We use no pesticides at all—just bio-friendly bugs.” Aurora Sky’s post-production area alone is staggering in size. Fifteen drying rooms employ a cold-harvesting method that keeps the ambient temperature no higher than 9°C (48°F). Like a giant humidor, the rooms contain only filtered air and lock in terpenes and flavonoids for optimum quality. A team of mechanical twister machines auto-trim the flowers and send them to the packing room, which can produce 50 sealed bottles per minute accurately. Air in the containers is replaced with CO2 and nitrogen to preserve freshness almost indefinitely. Justin Cannabis/ НT Home Cultivation For those seeking to grow their own, Aurora recently acquired the BC Northern Lights and Urban Cultivator grow-box companies. While other licensed producers may seek to undermine and delay home-cultivation rights, Aurora sees an enticing market for personal grow equipment among the Canadian public and plans to even provide clones for sale to its customers who choose to produce their own marijuana. CEO Booth explains: “We’ve always advocated for people’s ability to make their own choices and are very supportive of the Supreme Court’s Allard decision, which confirmed patients’ rights to grow their own medical cannabis. Similarly, we believe that, after implementation of consumer legalization in Canada, individuals who choose to grow their own cannabis should have access to cultivation solutions that are in controlled environments, safe and can produce high-yielding, high-quality cannabis.” Furthermore, the grow-box buyer can sample stains from Aurora before growing them in order to be sure they’re cultivating the varieties they want. BCNL and Urban Cultivator, operating for 17 and eight years, respectively, provide state-of-the-art indoor-gardening appliances with touch-screen technology and advanced automation. They’ve earned a reputation as the leading grow-box brands in the world and have been encouraging and helping people to grow their own cannabis as well as microgreens, vegetables and herbs. Neil Belot, Aurora’s chief global business development officer, says, “These transactions are an important step in our strategy to serve the home-gardening market in Canada for patients who choose to grow their own medical cannabis, and ultimately for adult consumers who choose to grow their own after Canada’s federal government legalizes adult usage, which is anticipated by July 2018. For over a decade, BC Northern Lights products have been widely recognized as the gold standard for home cannabis production, and we look forward to integrating our offerings to deliver a truly unique and full-service customer experience.” “We are delighted to be part of the Aurora family,” says Tarren Wolfe, co-founder of BCNL and Urban Cultivator. “This will enable us to address a much larger audience of people who have been empowered by the Allard decision to operate a home garden and are seeking access to the equipment, genetics and educational support services to do so. In teaming up with Aurora, we will work with an industry-leading team of cannabis-branding specialists and sales and marketing professionals to bring BCNL to the next level. In addition, Aurora’s licensed-producer status means the company will soon be able to provide a fully integrated package, including starter materials such as clones, offering one-stop shopping for people who choose to grow their own cannabis at home.” Blue Dream; Justin Cannabis/ НT Aurora’s Glow With its commitment to quality and cost control; its fast, free and discreet shipping throughout Canada; and its newest facility projected to produce over 100,000 kilograms of cannabis per year, Aurora Cannabis Inc. looks certain to gain strength in the highly competitive marijuana-production marketplace on a global scale. Aurora’s acquisitions, investments and recent expansion into supplying multiple international partners in Europe, Australia, South America and beyond will certainly change the future of cannabis cultivation and distribution worldwide. Like its namesake, the aurora borealis, this “electric” company seems destined to continue shining for years to come.
  5. Отзывы об интернет-магазине UATRAVA - который занимается продажей таких товаров как: семена конопли (семена марихуаны, семена каннабиса, семена травы и тд); споры грибов оборудование для гровинга (освещение, вентиляция, гроубоксы и тд.); удобрения; товары с cbd; жидкости для парения. мы за независимые отзывы, поэтому все отзывы строго модерируются администрацией, но все же обратите внимание на количество сообщений пользователя, дату его регистрации и на манеру донесения информации, если человек вставляет ссылку на магазин, это его первое сообщение на форуме и он всячески пытается убедить вас купить тут - возможно это реклама самого продавца! ! также если магазин есть в спонсорах портала - вы можете с большим доверием отнестись к покупке в нем
  6. Отзывы об интернет-магазине GrowerSyndicate(grower.win) - который занимается продажей таких товаров как: семена конопли (семена марихуаны, семена каннабиса, семена травы и тд). оборудование для гровинга (освещение, вентиляция, гроубоксы и тд.) товары с cbd жидкости для парения мы за независимые отзывы, поэтому все отзывы строго модерируются администрацией, но все же обратите внимание на количество сообщений пользователя, дату его регистрации и на манеру донесения информации, если человек вставляет ссылку на магазин, это его первое сообщение на форуме и он всячески пытается убедить вас купить тут - возможно это реклама самого продавца! Магазин находится в спонсорах СФК Grower! Вы можете посмотреть спонсорский раздел магазина: ТУТ
  7. Отзывы об интернет-магазине GrowerSyndicate(grower.win) - который занимается продажей таких товаров как: семена конопли (семена марихуаны, семена каннабиса, семена травы и тд). оборудование для гровинга (освещение, вентиляция, гроубоксы и тд.) товары с cbd жидкости для парения мы за независимые отзывы, поэтому все отзывы строго модерируются администрацией, но все же обратите внимание на количество сообщений пользователя, дату его регистрации и на манеру донесения информации, если человек вставляет ссылку на магазин, это его первое сообщение на форуме и он всячески пытается убедить вас купить тут - возможно это реклама самого продавца! Магазин находится в спонсорах СФК Grower! Вы можете посмотреть спонсорский раздел магазина: ТУТ Оставить свой отзыв в спонсорском разделе магазина: ТУТ
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